D'Arsonval meter movement and its principle

D'Arsonval movement principle :

An action caused by electromagnetic deflection, using a coil of wire and a magnetized field. When current passes through the coil, a needle is deflected.

Whenever electrons flow through a conductor, a magnetic field proportional to the current is created. This effect is useful for measuring current and is employed in many practical meters.
Since most of the meters in use have D'Arsonval movements, which operate because of the magnetic effect, only this type will be discussed in detail. The basic dc meter movement is known as the D'Arsonval meter movement because it was first employed by the French scientist, D'Arsonval, in making electrical measurement.

This type of meter movement is a current measuring device which is used in the ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter. Basically, both the ammeter and the voltmeter are current measuring instruments, the principal difference being the method in which they are connected in a circuit. While an ohmmeter is also basically a current measuring instrument, it differs from the ammeter and voltmeter in that it provides its own source of power and contains other auxiliary circuits.

D’Arsonval Galvanometer :

This instrument is very commonly used in various methods of resistance measurement and also in d.c. potentiometer work.

Construction of D'Arsonval galvanometer:

The construction of D’Arsonval galvanometer is shown in figure below. Let us discuss different parts of D’Arsonval galvanometer.

D'Arsonval Galvanometer

1) Moving coil:

It is the current carrying element. It is either rectangular or circular in shape and consists of number of turns of fine wire. This coil is suspended so that it is free to turn about its vertical axis of symmetry. It is arranged in a uniform, radial, horizontal magnetic field in the air gap between pole pieces of a permanent magnet and iron core. The iron core is spherical in shape if the coil is circular but is cylindrical if the coil is rectangular. The iron core is used to provide a flux path of low reluctance and therefore to provide strong magnetic field for the coil to move in. this increases the deflecting torque and hence the sensitivity of the galvanometer. The length of air gap is about 1.5mm. In some galvanometers the iron core is omitted resulting in of decreased value of flux density and the coil is made narrower to decrease the air gap. Such a galvanometer is less sensitive, but its moment of inertia is smaller on account of its reduced radius and consequently a short periodic time.

2) Damping:

There is a damping torque present owing to production of eddy currents in the metal former on which the coil is mounted. Damping is also obtained by connecting a low resistance across the galvanometer terminals. Damping torque depends upon the resistance and we can obtain critical damping by adjusting the value of resistance.

3) Suspension:

The coil is supported by a flat ribbon suspension which also carries current to the coil. The other current connection in a sensitive galvanometer is a coiled wire. This is called the lower suspension and has a negligible torque effect. This type of galvanometer must be leveled carefully so that the coil hangs straight and centrally without rubbing the poles or the soft iron cylinder. Some portable galvanometers which do not require exact leveling have " taut suspensions" consisting of straight flat strips kept under tension for at the both top and at the bottom.

The upper suspension consists of gold or copper wire of nearly 0.012-5 or 0.02-5 mm diameter rolled into the form of a ribbon. This is not very strong mechanically; so that the galvanometers must he handled carefully without jerks. Sensitive galvanometers are provided with coil clamps to the strain from suspension, while the galvanometer is being moved.

4)  Indication:

The suspension carries a small mirror upon which a beam of light is cast. The beam of light is reflected on a scale upon which the deflection is measured. This scale is usually about 1 meter away from the instrument, although ½ meter may be used for greater compactness.

5) Zero setting:

A torsion head is provided for adjusting the position of the coil and also for zero setting.

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