 # Heterodyne Wave Analyzer

## Heterodyne Wave Analyzer:

### Introduction:

Analysis of the waveform means determination of the values of amplitude, frequency and sometime phase angle of the harmonic components.

A wave analyser is an instrument designed to measure relative amplitude of signal frequency components in a complex waveform .basically a wave instruments acts as a frequency selective voltmeter which is tuned to the frequency of one signal while rejecting all other signal components.

It is well known that any periodic waveform can be represented as the sum of a d.c. component and a series of sinusoidal harmonics. Analysis of a waveform consists of determination of the values of amplitude, frequency, and sometime phase angle of the harmonic components. Graphical and mathematical methods may be used for the purpose but these methods are quite laborious. The analysis of a complex waveform can be done by electrical means using a band pass filter network to single out the various harmonic components. Networks of these types pass a narrow band of frequency and provide a high degree of attenuation to all other frequencies.

A wave analyzer, in fact, is an instrument designed to measure relative amplitudes of single frequency components in a complex waveform. Basically, the instrument acts as a frequency selective voltmeter which is used to the frequency of one signal while rejecting all other signal components. The desired frequency is selected by a frequency calibrated dial to the point of maximum amplitude. The amplitude is indicated either by a suitable voltmeter or CRO.

This instrument is used in the MHz range. The input signal to be analysed is heterodyned to a higher IF by an internal local oscillator. Tuning the local oscillator shifts various signal frequency components into the pass band of the IF amplifier. The output of the IF amplifier is rectified and is applied to the metering circuit. The instrument using the heterodyning principle is called a heterodyning tuned voltmeter.

The block schematic of the wave analyser using the heterodyning principle is shown in fig. above. The operating frequency range of this instrument is from 10 kHz to 18 MHz in 18 overlapping bands selected by the frequency range control of the local oscillator. The bandwidth is controlled by an active filter and can be selected at 200, 1000, and 3000 Hz.

### Applications of Wave Analyzers:

Wave analyzers have very important applications in the following fields:

1)      Electrical measurements

2)      Sound measurements and

3)      Vibration measurements.

The wave analyzers are applied industrially in the field of reduction of sound and vibrations generated by rotating electrical machines and apparatus. The source of noise and vibrations is first identified by wave analyzers before it can be reduced or eliminated. A fine spectrum analysis with the wave analyzer shows various discrete frequencies and resonances that can be related to the motion of machines. Once, these sources of sound and vibrations are detected with the help of wave analyzers, ways and means can be found to eliminate them.