Four way traffic light signal using PIC16F84A microcontroller:
Hi friends, today we are going to make a four way traffic light controller using a PIC16F84 microcontroller. In this project we will operate three LEDs (RED, YELLOW, and GREEN) according to the traffic rules.
Illumination of the green light allows traffic to proceed in the direction denoted,
Illumination of the yellow light denoting, if safe to do so, prepare to stop short of the intersection, and
Illumination of the red signal prohibits any traffic from proceeding.
1) Four set of Red-Green-Blue LEDs
2) PIC16F84A microcontroller
3) 22uF capacitor – 2 no.
4) Crystal oscillator 4MHz
5) 10KΩ resistor, 330Ω resistors
6) 5V battery
1) In this project we are going to operate (control) a four way traffic light signal using PIC16F84A microcontroller. First thing we have to do is , simply connect four set of Red-Green-Yellow LEDs to respective pins of PIC16F84A microcontroller as shown in circuit diagram(you can also use separate LEDs just connect all common terminals (negative) to ground with 330Ω resistor in series with each LED).
2) 5V supply to the pin number 14.
3) Ground pin number 5.
4) Connect two 22uF capacitors in parallel with two terminals of crystal oscillator.
5) Make all the remaining connection as shown in figure.
Click below link to download .C and .HEX files for this project
In four point starters, the hold on coil is connected directly across the supply line through a protective resistance R. when the armature touches stud no 1.the line current divides into three parts i) armature starting resistance and overload release. ii) a variable resistance and shunt field winding. Iii) Holding coil and current limiting resistance.
The basic difference between three point and four point starters is the manner in which the hold on coil is connected. The unnecessary tripping of starter can be stopped by connecting separately or parallel both magnetizing and field coil. They are connected in such a way that both should carry their individual current. Thus voltage drop in one coil will not affect the voltage in other coil.
Disadvantages of four coil starter:
The only limitation of the four point starter is that it does not provide high speed protection to the motor. If under running condition field gets opened; the field current reduces to zero. As there is some residual flux present and speed (N) is directly proportional to flux (ø) the motor will tries to run with dangerously high speed .this is called high speed action of motor. In three point starter as no volt coil is directly connected to across the supply; its current is maintained irrespective of the current through the field winding .hence it always maintain the handle in run position as long as supply is there .and thus it doesn’t protect the motor from field failure conditions which returns into high speeding of the motor.
figure shows the schematic diagram of a three point starter for a shunt motor. It is so called because it has three terminals L, F and A. the starter consist of starting resistance divided into several sections and connected in series with the armature. The tapping points of the starting resistance are brought out to a number of studs. The three terminal L, F and A of the starter are connected respectively to the positive line terminal, shunt field terminal and armature terminal. The other terminal of the armature and shunt field windings are connected to the negative terminal of the supply .the no volt coil is connected in the shunt field circuit. One end of the handle is connected to the terminal L through the over load release coil. The other end of the handle moves against a spiral spring and make contact with each stud during starting operation cutting out more and more starting resistance as it passes over each stud in clockwise direction.
Working of three point starter:
1) Initially when a DC supply is switched ON with handle in the OFF position.
2) The handle is now moved clockwise to the first stud, the shunt field winding is directly connected across the supply while the whole starting resistance is inserted in series with the armature circuit.
3) As the handle is gradually moved over to the final stud, the starting resistance is cut out of the armature circuit in steps. The handle is now held magnetically by the no volt release coil which is energized by shunt field current.
4) If the supply voltage is suddenly interrupted or if the field excitation is accidently cut, the no volt release coil is demagnetized and the handle goes back to the OFF position under the pull of the spring. If no volt coil were not used, then in case of failure of supply. The handle would remain on the final stud. If then supply is restored, the motor will be directly connected across the supply, resulting in an excessive armature current.
5) If the motor is overloaded (or any fault occurs) it will draw excessive current from the supply. This current will increase the ampere turns of the overload release coil and pull the armature, thus short circuited the no volt release coil. The no volt coil is demagnetized and the handle is pulled to the OFF position by the spring .thus the motor is automatically disconnected from the supply
Limitations of the three point starter:
Unnecessary tripping of starter if a field regulator is connected in series with the field windings for speed control operation. This combination and magnetizing coil will carry same current if more and more resistance is added in field regulator then current in magnetizing coil is unable to hold the arm in attracted position and unnecessarily the arm will be released even if there is no over loading .this is avoided infour point starter.